Bringing it all together – a brand new explanation of the experimental observations of frequency and power windowing in electromagnetic interaction with biology Hz- GHz, effects of modulations, wound healing, cancer induction/promotion and subtle field cancer treatment’ By Dr Chris Barnes, Manager @bsec-wales.co.uk
We are of late truly a society, rather now an entire globe, bathed in anthropogenic electromagnetic radiation. Few question if that radiation will have upon us either deleterious or positive effect. The standard ‘physics’ based answer is to suggest that unlike x-rays or nuclear radiation this radio frequency stuff is tame. Its flux quanta per se do not have enough energy to break chemical bonds or cause ionisation so we can forget about it. Further because results in the mainstream experiential academic literature appear so conflicting with regards to the effects of RF radiation this has led to those charged with administering its safety having to set almost arbitrary limits which also vary considerably from country to country across the world.
In this paper we will see that ‘Frequency’ is an operative word. Waves of any ‘frequency’ be they compressional or longitudinal proceed carrying a pattern in time and space, if they carry modulation or information, that train of information too proceeds adding complexity to our ‘pattern’ in time and space. Next week meet biological reactions. These do not employ inanimate chunks of ‘test tube’ chemistry. They too proceed in the four dimensions of time and space carrying information with them or transferring it from place to place in a manner as to create order from chaos, negative entropy and coherence. This biological coherence manifests at all sorts of levels, from the thought that creates a paper or publications such as this, to the firing of motor neurones causing muscular contraction and the very muscular contraction itself as the keys of the key board are struck. But what of the subtler, sub -cellular and even sub-molecular interactions. If the components move in time and space, then frequency must play a part. In other words, biology and frequency far from being un-interactive, as our traditional high school physics book might suggest, are in fact inseparable.
Further it becomes quite conceivably that ‘frequency instructions’ encoded in both the primordial micro, sub atomic particles of the initial big bang encoded the inanimate but more ‘macro’ such as water and especially certain clathrates providing THz frequencies to ultimately allow initially by RNA replication and later with the whole suite of bio-molecules we are familiar with, i.e. life as we know it. Moreover, the development of our ancestral DNA began in a time when there was only natural frequency present. If we limit ourselves to the frequency range Hz-GHz which is the subject matter of this present paper then these natural frequencies would have included as regular inputs Schumann resonances of our Earth and other planets and broad band microwaves from solar and galactic inputs. However, there would have been protective ‘notches’ in these microwave emissions, wherein their amplitudes would have been reduced over very narrow band regions due to the various atmospheric microwave absorption lines of gases and radicals. Thus at least, if nothing else, we owe it our creation, however brought about, to enquire about the effects of anthropogenic or extraneous frequency and notwithstanding the safety of our offspring.
The average man, woman or child’s exposure, particularly to UHF and microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation has increased very substantially over the last two decades with the now very ubiquitous use of both the mobile phone, and wireless devices in general. We are all too exposed to ELF (extremely low frequency) radiation in the form of domestic electricity supply electric and magnetic fields at 50 or 60 Hz and their multiple and sub-harmonic frequencies. In this regard so too did our parents and grandparents suffer some exposures, although it could be argued that with the increase in electrical and electronic appliances in households in general, even ELF exposure is on the rise. Even in our cars and buses we are not immune from Bluetooth and WIFI exposure or the ELF fields from the ECU and wiring loom.
Clearly, there are those concerned about safety aspects of such exposure. Such concerns are in part prompted by anecdotal reports of symptoms such as but not exhaustively; sleep disturbance, headaches, skin tingling, ringing in the ears, anxiety, palpitations, immune disturbances and the like in the vicinity of mobile phone masts and wifi networks. In the past such symptoms have been put down to EHS ( ecltro- hypersensitivity syndrome) or simply thought of as being psychosomatic.
However, when proper epidemiological studies are conducted which validate some of the above one starts to address more serious concerns. For example, we see a growing tide of unexplained mental illnesses in teenagers and young adults and increases in certain types of cancer. It is certainly instructive and we can perhaps learn from taking for comparison a small slice of society which does not use or at least avoids as far as practically possible the use of modern electromagnetic technology, namely the Amish religious sect. The Amish (/ˈɑːmɪʃ/; Pennsylvania Dutch: Amisch, German: Amische) are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships with Swiss Anabaptist origins. They are closely related to, but distinct from, Mennonite churches. The Amish are known for simple living, plain dress, and reluctance to adopt many conveniences of modern technology. The history of the Amish church began with a schism in Switzerland within a group of Swiss and Alsatian Anabaptists in 1693 led by Jakob Ammann. Those who followed Ammann became known as Amish. Many Amish emigrated to the USA, Pennsylvania and Ohio where eve today they still follow their strict religious traditions which somehow seem to confer upon them protection from certain illnesses and diseases. I postulate that these are ‘frequency’ diseases.
Intriguingly, teenage mental illness and related conditions such as ADHD and autism are extremely rare amongst the Amish. Cancers too are some 40% less in occurrence than in the rest of Ohio.
Cancer these days inevitably seems to be everybody’s prime concern. There are so many cancer related articles on the media and indeed with between 1 in 2 and 1 in 3 of us destined to suffer from it especially in old age we can’t but help know someone somewhere touched by it.
Occasionally in the media and often in the scientific literature one comes across claims of association of cancer with RF radiation. Yet equally just as often one comes across published scientific papers showing no correlation whatsoever or even beneficial effects of RF Radiation. Based on these results it has been incredibly difficult, if not impossible, for those committees charged with setting safe limits on Radio Frequency Field strength to protect our health. Over the years this has manifest in different safe limits being set in the USA, Russia and Europe with respect to RF radiation and even to its classification as a possible carcinogen by the WHO.
Studies of the effects of RF radiation on biological material began several decades ago by treating biological material, blood, tissues, protein and the like as dielectric material. Thus some idea of polarizability, displacement current, loss tangent and energy dumping or dielectric heating could be obtained. There is of course no question that high power RF radiation sets up currents in tissue and damages it by thermal mechanisms. One only has to look at a radio frequency burn, for example. Similar mechanism is exploited in microwave cookers where the dielectric heating is due to phase lag between ‘wagging’ hydrogen bonds in free and food bound water.
However, the field strengths that we are exposed to every day from our mobile phones. Wifis, TV and Radio Broadcasting and domestic wiring are at least 1000 times less than those of a high power radio transmitting antenna or microwave over and in some cases even over a million times less. These are the types of field strengths which do not cause heating of tissue but have by about 50% of studies being reported to cause often subtle biological effect.
A substantial number of studies on electromagnetic radiation reach the conclusion that unmodulated radio waves are safe. The trouble is in the modulation, particularly if it carries ELF pulses. Prima fascia I have a certain degree of sympathy with this, although it is by no means the entire story. Taking the radio science point of view, an unmodulated carrier carries with it no information, only the modulation carries information. But I will show this is not strictly true. It can only be true if either the carrier wave is infinitely off, i.e. has never been on, or is infinitely on. So in a biological experiment the carrier would need to have been on at a time preceding the birth of the organism being tested. Otherwise as it switches on, it advertises its presence. In the simplest sense modulation can be an on-off carrier wave, for example, Morse Code. There is another way an unmodulated wave could appear to show information. In this case if it is reflected or partially reflected in a cavity, such as in a room in house or a vehicle as to form a standing or stationary wave. Passing through peaks or troughs in the standing wave which occur at twice the frequency of the original wave one will ‘feel’ information. Indeed, there is a scientific study in the literature (albeit a solitary study) which shows just this.
Following from Geesink’s hypothesis of the bio-soliton clathrate resonator and Frolich style frequency condensates there ought to be a whole family of unmodulated RF carrier waves which show biological effects, with frequencies form Hz to THz.
I have been able to find a handful of such frequencies in the recent studies, of others which the less well informed might be tempted to dismiss because of the apparently overwhelming loading in favour of the need for modulation to provoke biological effect. However, I am not the only one to provide the solution. Reference to ……. Is very instructive. They give specific GHz frequencies which provoke biological effect without modulation, their so called ‘effective’ frequencies and those which require ELF modulation in order to bring about effect. The latter being referred to as their so called ineffective frequencies.
The question of science apparently having disclosed so few ‘effective’ modulation free frequencies can be addressed quite simply by delving into the needs of the majority of modern studies on RF-biology interaction which have been motivated purely by the need to assess the safety or otherwise of mobile technologies, consequently only a handful of RF carrier frequencies have been addressed. These are typically and mainly frequencies associated with modern mobile telephony and WIFI, 835 MHz, 900 MHz, 915 MHz, 935 MHz, 1.8 GHz, 2.1 GHz, 2.45 GHz. It is this of course perfectly understandable they have been studied. Very occasionally studies refer to other frequencies for example: 50 MHz (analogous to old Band 2 TV or a VHF amateur radio band, 147 MHz, another VHF ham radio band and close to the band used for high power radio pagers, much higher microwave frequencies in the region of 40-60 GHz used in point to point microwave mobile telephony back haul and in some Russian subtle field treatment units.
What is perhaps somewhat more surprising and frightening is that we are all bathed in, and have been for a several decades, lots of other radio and TV broadcasting frequencies, form the KHz to the high hundreds of MHz which have simply not been explored under laboratory conditions at all. The only studies here seem to have been of geo-spatial epidemiological types with rather inconclusive outcomes. This is hardly surprising in the light of the fact that most TV broadcasting stations emit multiple frequencies TV, FM, DAB all from the same antenna mast or location.
Returning to the literature then, effectively then about a dozen or so frequencies, or frequency channels (if modulation has been included) have been discussed in the literature their bio-effect. Even if we limit ourselves to frequencies up to 1 GHz and a 10 KHz channel this the leaves the interaction of 100,000 channels and biology totally unexplored. About a sixth of the known frequencies studied to date have modulation independent biological effects even though this represents only some 3 of about 5000 studies in the literature. This is because so much duplication has been attempted using modulated frequencies, which when we face reality is what we are more usually exposed to. However, the numbers remain interesting. It suggests that within the frequency space to 1 GHz even allowing for channelization there should be about 16,000 more very biologically active frequencies. This is not so unlike the estimated 19,000-20,000 human protein-coding genes. My proposal is that frequency medicine, once condemned to the realms of quackery, will one day soon be very much on the cards.
Hypothesis: Bringing it all together: Combining the best.
Part (i) Frequency windowing.
No one present theory presently or adequately explains the interaction of frequency with living biological material at a whole organism level or at a cellular level or at a sub-cellular level. Given the above this is perhaps hardly surprising. Some models however come remarkably close. The standard ion cyclotron resonance model (ICR) describes ELF frequencies at which common biological ions may be driven in spiral paths through active transport membrane channels in the presence of the of the earth’s magnetic field. Most references quote the ICR frequency for the calcium ion as 16 Hz. Changing rate of ion influx from extra- cellular position to the interior or vice versa (efflux) has biological effect because of the knock on effect on up or downstream processes. Probably this is why 16 Hz amplitude modulation has featured heavily in several biological studies of RF radiation.
ICR however has its limitations and does not account for all observations. Lednev (1991) was perhaps the first to have significantly added to the ICR model by producing perhaps the first model which could loosely be described as Ion Parametric Resonance (IPR). IPR defers from ICR in that it takes into account the AC magnetic field strength that the driving frequency is applied at in addition to DC field strength which in a normal biological system would be a vector component of the earth’s field. IPR also predicts biological effects at additional frequencies which are the sub-harmonics and harmonics of the ICR cyclotron frequency. Thus I also believe Jacobson resonance, a general form of Zeeman and cyclotron resonance, to be an extension predictable by IPR.
According to Lednev, an ion inside a Ca2+ -binding protein is approximated by a charged oscillator. A shift in the probability of ion transition between different vibrational energy levels occurs when a combination of static and alternating magnetic fields is applied. This in turn affects the interaction of the ion with the surrounding ligands. The effect reaches its maximum when the frequency of the alternating field is equal to the cyclotron frequency of this ion or to some of its harmonics or sub-harmonics. Most importantly a resonant response of the biosystem to the magnetic field results. Once we have resonant responses we can begin to understand more easily how very subtle fields might influence biology.
Very importantly, the IPR model has been testable experimentally, see Blackman et al 1999.
They used hydrogen ion IPR and PC-12 nerve cells to make the test. Because the charge-to-mass ratio of hydrogen is much larger than any other biologically significant ion, hydrogen resonance provides a unique test case by which a single ionic bandwidth can be clearly measured. Their work considered the response of nerve-growth-factor-stimulated PC-12 cells exposed to magnetic fields tuned at or near hydrogen resonance. Further their work was designed to test the IPR model prediction of an approximate -/+10% ionic bandwidth. Consistent with the work of Trillo et al., resonance conditions were established using a 2.97 microT static magnetic field, and the AC frequency and field strength varied to prove different aspects of the resonance. With this static field, 45 Hz was the resonance frequency identified for hydrogen, 42.5 and 47.5 Hz were near-resonance frequencies, and 40 and 50 Hz bounded the assumed -/+10% hydrogen resonance bandwidth. The cell responses at 45 Hz exposures agreed with the IPR model predictions and replicated results obtained by Trillo et al. Cells exposed to 42.5 and 47.5 Hz (near resonance) magnetic fields responded in the same general pattern as those exposed to 45 Hz fields, but neurite outgrowth was less than that observed at resonance. Measured results for cells exposed to either 40 Hz or 50 Hz fields were indistinguishable from off-resonance responses, consistent with the hypothesized bandwidth. These results confirm that the response bandwidth for the hydrogen ion is no greater than -/+10%, and give further support to the resonance-based predictions of the IPR model.
Despite this experimental proof of IPR there has remained criticism of the model because of factors such ion residency time and signal to noise ratio. Machlup (2009) provides the solution as follows. Lednev's “possible mechanisms for the influence of weak magnetic fields on biological system” involved two parallel magnetic fields, one constant and one oscillatory in the ELF (extremely low-frequency) range. The suggested ion resonances (IPR) were termed “impossible” by Adair (ref ) even after the above referred demonstration in a rat-nerve (PC-12) cell culture. Machlup (2009) resolves the “signal-to-noise-ratio” paradox by taking account of the coherent absorption of the ELF energy and showing how the energy of several trillion ELF photons can free a single ion from its trap on the surface of a cell of the culture.
All we require is evidence of such coherent absorption and it is that I believe I can show. The simple fact is everything needed for this deduction is already out there in the literature. It is simply that no one author or experimenter has had either the time or inclination to bring it all together. This work is very much quantum biology and here I am reminded of one the sayings of my late mentors who was involved in this field and whom I first met at the ripe old age of 89 some four years before his death, namely that of Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrápolt who is quoted as coining the phrase ‘Discovery is seeing what everybody else has seen, and thinking what nobody else has thought’.
At about the same time that Szent Gyorgyi was contemplating the redox chain and free radicals in cancer, Herbert Fröhlich whom I also met at a conference in Nottingham University was providing his biological quantum coherence theory. Moreover, the theory proposes the so called Frolich condensate, a sort of Biological equivalent of the Bose-Einstein condensate.
Evidence of the Frolich condensate ought to be found in large biological effects arising from minute temperature changes. Obvious examples are the exquisite sensitivity of the human eye and ear even at close to thermal energy. Webb et al (1977) provided evidence from the bacterial world. The ratio R of the intensities of anti Stokes and Stokes Raman shift lines of 124 cm-1 and of 118 cm-1 of active E. coli B was measured. For an oscillating system in therm equilibrium R ≈ 0.55 is expected whereas they found R ≈ 1.0. This shows that this system was excited strongly above thermal excitation in agreement with a Frolich style theoretical conjecture.
In 1985, Frolich himself, provided further experimental evidence for his theoretical model. Large biological effects arising from very small temperature differences — when overall changes of temperature have negligible effect — support the theory of coherent excitations. Establishment of a spectroscopic resonance in the membrane of erythrocytes confirmed his theoretical estimate.
Grundler (1977) provided yet further evidence, this time for coherent energy conversion, in that the growth behaviour of yeast cultures in aqueous suspension was monitored by visible light extinction and showed an exponential growth rate reproducible within ±3% limits. When the cultures were irradiated by c.w. microwave fields of a few mW/cm2 the growth rate either stayed constant or was considerably enhanced or reduced depending on the frequency around 42 GHz. A spectral fine structure with a width of the order of 10 MHz was observed. Careful temperature monitoring had excluded a trivial thermal origin of this effect.
Lundholm et al (2015) are perhaps the first to show Frolich condensation in non-lving biological material. They have shown that Terahertz radiation induces non-thermal structural changes associated with Fröhlich condensation in a protein crystal. It was proposed by Fröhlich that vibrational modes within protein molecules can order and condense into a lowest-frequency vibrational mode in a process similar to Bose-Einstein condensation, and thus that macroscopic coherence could potentially be observed in biological systems. Despite the prediction of these so-called Fröhlich condensates almost five decades ago, experimental evidence thereof has been sparse, indeed Lunholm at the time of writing didn’t even appear to be aware of the references I have presently generated. Effectively they have found the first experimental observation of Fröhlich condensation in a protein structure. To that end, and to overcome the challenges associated with probing low-frequency molecular vibrations in proteins (which has hampered understanding of their role in proteins' function), they combined terahertz techniques with a highly sensitive X-ray crystallographic method to visualize low-frequency vibrational modes in the protein structure of hen-egg white lysozyme. They found that 0.4 THz electromagnetic radiation induces non-thermal changes in electron density. In particular, we observed a local increase of electron density in a long α-helix motif consistent with a subtle longitudinal compression of the helix. These observed electron density changes occur at a low absorption rate indicating that thermalization of terahertz photons happens on a micro- to milli-second time scale, which is much slower than the expected nanosecond time scale due to damping of delocalized low frequency vibrations. Their analysis shows that the micro- to milli-second lifetime of the vibration can only be explained by Fröhlich condensation.
Srobar (2014) extends Frolich’s original model. Oscillating polar entities inside biological cells, most notably microtubules, were discussed in terms of their tendency to emit electromagnetic radiation. This phenomenon is described by Fröhlich kinetic equations expressing, in terms of quantum occupancy numbers of each discrete collective oscillatory mode, the balance between incoming metabolic energy flow and losses due to linear and non-linear interactions with the thermal environs of the oscillators. Hitherto, radiation losses had not been introduced as part of the balance; it was assumed that they were proportional to the modal occupation numbers. Srobar demonstrated that this formulation is incorrect and the radiation losses must be taken into account in the kinetic equations explicitly. Results of their numerical study of kinetic equations, enlarged in this sense, are presented for the case of three coupled oscillators which were shown to evince the essential attributes of the Fröhlich systems. Oscillator eigenfrequencies were chosen, alternatively, to fall into the MHz and the THz frequency domains. It was found that large radiation levels destroy the main hallmark of the Fröhlich systems, the energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode. The system then functions as a convertor of metabolic energy into radiation. At more moderate radiation levels, both energy condensation and significant radiation can coexist. These results also suggest that quantum coherence in biological systems and coherence between the modes of such systems and external pump frequency waves will be more likely at extremely low power levels. Typical estimates of power outputs of single living cells are between 10^-20 W and 10^-1o W so certainly not inconsistent.
Geesink and Miejner (2016) have very recently indeed provided a bio-soliton model for the very origins of primordial life at hydrated clathrate surfaces, their so called quantum RNA replicator. Furthermore when the THz frequencies of the replicator are reproduced on an acoustic condensate scale of some 240 -500 Hz by successive division by two they claim that the frequencies of a large number of RF effects style biological experiments similarly reduced either line up with their condensate frequencies ( their so called life -sustaining frequencies) or lie in bands in-between, these being their so called life destroying frequencies). Close examination of their results shows the number of references to life -sustaining results strongly outweighs references to life destroying results and most of the references are not readily found in internet searches. This is a great shame as I do believe there is ultimately significant substance in the general findings of Geesink and Meijer. I will show that when more references are considered biological effect can sometimes be either positive or negative at or in-between the Geesink/Frolich style condensates. I will show that the only explanation for this is that biology has used specific condensates for specific processes some in conjunction with IPR to bring about augmentation or depletion of specific biological ion channels not just calcium as has previously been suggested. Indeed, I will show that in my model, hereinafter the Barnes model, an adaption of the Geesink resonator idea marries exactly with IPR and with Jacobson Resonance and leads me to the point where not only can I explain frequency windowing, I can also predict which specific voltage gated ion channels are being disturbed by each frequency window and what precise biological effects are to be expected. In other words, I believe for the first time ever I can open up true frequency medicine for wound healing, brain disorders, cancer treatment and the like and that it will be able to be used precisely and not with hap-hazard as has been the case in the past. Similarly, I will be able to predict biologically safe frequencies and modes for radio, TV and data transmission.
Developing the Barnes model
My present model proposes the following. Firstly, that Geesink/Frolich condensate modes provide energy for active transport and other processes by parametric conversion from broad band microwave background. Favoured modes are those which coincide with IPR and especially coherently with Schumann resonance, from where additionally millions of ELF photons can be trapped over coherence time to provide sufficient membrane vibration energy to move ions off cellular surfaces and they are propelled in voltage gated channels by ICR spiral like forces. IPR and Geesink/Frolich condensate can be stimulated at even harmonic and sub-harmonic frequencies and thus this explains why biological processes are perturbed by such a vast range of frequency.
The following are used in developing and testing the model:
1. First I take the Geesink condensate frequencies and add Schumann resonance bands and atmospheric microwave attenuation notches. The logic here is that primordial life would have developed utilising the whole electromagnetic background available not just the output of the clathrate RNA resonator. The broad band input component providing general energy for conversion to coherent modes. The Schumann inputs working in conjunction with specific IPR resonances and specific voltage gated ion channels to drive specific biological processes.
2. Secondly, I add in as many results of the biological outcomes from extraneous RF – biology interactions such as those of human, animal, xenograft and cell culture studies to inform and test the model. Proof will be seen in particular types of effects being seen as specific to specific condensates and the same being excited by their frequency multiples and sub –multiples across a large range say Hz-GHz.
3. Thirdly, because IPR depends on local DC magnetic field model predicts that cancer rates should increase in regions of the world where DC field is very different from average, irrespective of other variables. This should happen as IPR’s which coincide with a particular Schumann resonance mode or beneficial condensate are moved frequency wise relative to it because of changes in local (DC) magnetic field and this also gives a new an alternative explanation to certain types of cancer clusters.
4. IPR model suggests bandwidth of up to 10% . Bio-soliton model only allows bandwidth of 1.5%. Should result in specific ions being associated with groups of *biological processes or small bands across condensate and gaps in-between condensate, so called anti-condensate according to Barnes. When AC magnetic field is factored in predicts power dependent effects or power windowing because power ‘tunes’ IPR frequency ( probability and direction of ion in channel) across narrow band of condensates and will explain sometimes observations of positive and negative bio-effects for more or less same or similar experiment, hence ‘defuses’ controversy attached to topic in literature. * Again elegant evidence of this is provided from considering hitherto misunderstood results of others.
Step by step construction by way of frequency tables is now shown.
Table 1 : Geesink’s clathrate replicator ‘condensate’ frequencies showing planetary inputs and broad band microwave in black and
Notched frequencies protected by atmospheric absorption in red.
Thus this first stage in the Barnes model predicts that we should find some life critical biological processes associated with either the Schumann resonance reinforced condensates or the notched ‘protected’ frequency condensates. Furthermore perhaps the most critical of all processes ion transport as to allow muscular contraction as in a mammalian beating heart ought intuitively to be on the lowest frequency condensate. In table 2, I inspect what is found in the literature regarding the results of radio frequency and ultrasound frequency experiments on biological systems and insert effects on these ‘key’ frequencies above.
Table 2: Frequencies as per Table 1 with deduced biological processes inserted.
Immediately it can be seen that the hypothesis is strongly supported. The first Schumann resonance is an exact sub-multiple of the lowest frequency condensate at 256 Hz and all known experiments across a wide range of frequency associate this mode with modulation of calcium channels. Calcium (Ca) is the key regulator of cardiac contraction during excitation–contraction (E–C) coupling fundamentally the most important process to all higher life forms. ATP regulation would seem to be associated with narrow band galactic microwave input at 37 GHz. Plant growth is both positively and negatively affected by frequencies which are harmonics of the condensate on 303.1 Hz. The 20 MHz input in primordial times as today is due to Jovian signals, amongst some of the strongest natural short wave radio sources here on earth. Experiments with RF which has even sub-harmonics coinciding with the family of condensates from 324 to 341.2 Hz show teratogenic effects and influence brain activity. I tentatively therefore suggest that the atmospheric attenuation at 360 and 770 GHz was crucial in shaping the process of meiosis in balance with input from the approximately 40 Hz Schumann resonance. In mammals the primitive brain differentiates very early in gestation and this may account for the unlikely association. Calcium-dependent modulator protein in spermatozoa are also similar to brain modulator protein, see Jones et al 1978.
Similar teratogenic effects are found at a condensate frequency of 394.3 Hz which although a Barnes’ ‘anti-condensate frequency’ also appears to be protected by atmospheric notched attenuation.
Finally there is a whole block of condensate frequencies which appear to be heavily related to cellular division ( mitosis) and growth between 432 and 486 Hz. They were clearly heavily influenced by 2nd and 4th Schumann resonance and KHz Jovian inputs.
It is further instructive to insert known ICR frequencies of both hydrated and non-hydrated small ions into the table. It is adequate to use ICR frequencies because at zero or very low AC fields strengths the ICR and the IPR frequencies are one and the same. However, one must choose a ‘standard’ value of DC magnetic field and so I have normalised ICR frequencies to the average earth magnetic field of 45 micro Tesla. Hydrated and non- hydrated ion values are shown because in some cases ions are ‘squeezed’ into exceptionally hydrophobic regions. In making the calculation for hydrated ions I have used the lowest number of water molecules of hydration for each ion according to the available literature. I have also included as much information as I can have gleaned from as many references as possible on the effects of RF radiation from ELF to GHZ on even harmonics of the Geesink condensates and the Barnes anti-condensates.
Table 3: Same data as Table 2 with common ion ICR frequencies included.
Colour Key: Green = positive biological effect; Orange = detrimental bio-effect. Yellow= Bio-effect which could be adapted for treatment, cancer and the like.
Perhaps the most obvious observation form Table 3 is that rather than bio-effect being alternating good and bad as suggested by Geesink and Meijer, when considerably more results are analysed a patterns builds up of apparently pseudo random blocks of good and bad, as per my contention and explanation above. This is because the quantum replicator and Schumann resonance only varies by about +/-1.5% but IPR frequencies vary according to the Earth’s DC field which varies from location to location and there was obviously no control over this and no understanding of or desire to do so when all prior RF -biology experiments were performed, other than those specifically attempting to validate ICR type hypotheses.
The ultimate way to validate my present hypothesis is to examine closely the literature associated with various voltage gated ion channels and biological processes, particularly to see if the correct ion lines up with the observed processes at each coherent condensate frequency of concern.
The 241 Hz condensate/ Na/Mg
TRPM7 is a divalent cation channel permeable to calcium and magnesium. It has been implicated as a signalling kinase involved in vascular smooth muscle cell growth, apoptosis, adhesion, contraction, cytoskeletal organization, and migration, important processes involved in vascular remodelling associated with hypertension and other vascular diseases. It seems a good candidate for the channel being perturbed by RF radiation at harmonics of the 241 Hz condensate working synergistically with Magnesium IPR and is the first success for the Barnes model.
The 249.5 Hz condensate/ Na (aq)
According to Roselli and Jirillio (2006), several Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels (VGSC) are widely expressed on lymphocytes and macrophages but their role in immune function is still debated. Nevertheless, Na(+) influx through VGSC is required for lymphocytes activation and proliferation, since these responses are blocked by Na(+)-free medium or by VGSC blockers. These effects may be mediated by the reduced intracellular Na(+) levels, which in turn may impair the activity of Na(+)/Ca(++) exchanger resulting in reduced intracellular Ca(++) levels during lymphocyte activation. Furthermore, in Jurkat cell line VGSC appear to be involved in cell volume regulation, migration in artificial matrix and cell death by apoptosis. VGSC play a role in macrophage function as well, and VGSC blockers impair both phagocytosis and inflammatory responses. Several VGSC blockers have shown immunomodulatory properties in mice models, skewing the immune response toward a Th2-mediated response, while suppressing Th1-mediated responses, and VGSC already used in clinical practice are known to modulate immunoglobulin (Ig) levels both in mice and in humans. It looks consistent therefore that the 249.5 Hz condensate is operating synergistically with one of these voltage gated sodium channels, a second success for the Barnes model. This is only half the story, however, for this condensate both positive and negative bio effects are observed. This is because Calcium ions in the external medium stabilize the resting state of voltage-dependent channels, including Na channels. This effect of calcium on channel gating is usually explained in terms of the surface charge hypothesis, which proposes that local adsorption of calcium ion to the outside of the membrane alters the intramembranous electric field, thus influencing channel behaviour indirectly. Calcium ion has also been shown to block Na channels, most strongly at negative voltage. Calcium most likely has a gating effect and a blocking effect and may be an essential cofactor in normal gating and that it produces gating and blocking effects by binding within the channel. We can now understand the bio-effect of ‘calcium efflux’ on a sodium IPR frequency, a second complete success for the Barnes model.
The 278.9 Hz condensate/Ca2+ and Cl- (aq)
The next frequency to be dealt with is 278.9 Hz where calcium efflux and mitotic spindle effects are observed with RF radiation at appropriate harmonic frequencies. According to my calculations there are two potential synergistic ions which are hydrated chloride and anhydrous calcium. The notion and relevance of an ‘anhydrous’ ion may seem strange to some, but has recently been discussed in the context of Nano pore channels, see Aryal et al (2015), ‘Hydrophobic Gating in Ion Channels’. I shall now explore mitotic spindle effects. It has recently been disclosed that calcium aids chromosome condensation prior to cell division. Calcium-dependent regulator protein is a low molecular weight (17,000), thermostable, calcium binding protein which is structurally homologous to skeletal muscle troponin C., Thus the link between calcium concentration as result of VGCC is established and as cells enter prophase, the distinct cytoplasmic localization disappears commensurate with the dissolution of the cytoskeleton. The regulator protein seems to be randomly distributed throughout the prophase cell, including the region around the condensed chromosomes. However, at prometaphase, it is localized in association with the half-spindles of the mitotic apparatus. Through metaphase and most of anaphase, the protein remains localized between the chromosomes and the poles of the spindle. During late anaphase the protein is also found in the interzone region but rapidly condenses into two small regions, one on each side of the midbody that separates the daughter cells. The regulator protein is not localized in the cleavage furrow during telophase, whereas actin is demonstrable in this region. Indeed, placement of the protein during mitosis is distinct from both that of actin and that of tubulin. The localization of calcium-dependent regulator protein during mitosis suggests that it may mediate the calcium effects on the mitotic apparatus and thus play a role in chromosome movement. Izant (1983) showed that An increase in the concentration of free calcium ions during metaphase appears to stimulate the onset of anaphase. Keith et al (1985) using fluorescent techniques confirmed this. This ability to change the cell cycle may prove important in both RF cancer promotion and RF inspired methods of treatment. Thus I have shown the relevance of the synergistic relationship of anhydrous Calcium IPR and the 278.9 Hz condensate, I shall next deal with hydrated chloride which has a more or less equivalent IPR frequency.
For example, voltage gated chloride channels have been implicated in stem cell mitosis in both normal and malignant glial cells and in particular in cytoplasmic condensation, so called premitotic condensation (PMC). PMC represents an obligatory step in cell replication and is linked to chromatin condensation. If perturbed, the time required to complete a division is significantly prolonged. PMC is a feature shared more commonly among normal and malignant cells and that the reduction of cell volume is accomplished by Cl− efflux through ClC3 Cl− channels. Habela et al (2008) used patch-clamp electrophysiology and demonstrated a significant upregulation of chloride currents at M phase of the cell cycle. Colocalization studies and coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed the channel on the plasma membrane and at the mitotic spindle.
For I believe therefore the Barnes’ model elegantly accounts for the reported effects of RF radiation at the 278.9 Hz condensate working synergistically with both types of ion present.
The 303.1 Hz condensate / K+ (aq)
AKT1 Potassium Channel is the major channel controlling Plant Nutrition, hence growth, see Hirsch et al 1998. The Barnes’ model marries Potassium IPR exactly with RF effects at harmonics of the 303.1 Hz. Although shown as a positive effect, in reality both positive and negative effects of RF have been noticed on plant growth have been noticed especially with UHF and microwave radiation. It is hypothesised here that precise field patterns and power levels will determine if the IPR probability perturbation drives potassium influx or efflux. Essentially, once again the model is a complete success.
The 322 Hz condensate/K+
Dealing with the condensate centred around 322 Hz, a diversity of voltage gated potassium channels exist in brain with a diversity of functions. It seems quite feasible therefore that an appropriate channel adequately stimulated by coherence of the condensate and IPR frequency can bring about increased brain activity, again supporting the Barnes’ model. Destruction or mutation of KCNC3 causes the opposite effect e.g. neuro- degeneration. Autoimmune disease of these channels can cause limbic encephalitis or CJD like symptoms. Regarding the observation of RF causing increased vascular growth at this condensate, recent work shows that several identified K+ channels are important in both physiological and pathological cell proliferation, see Pardo 2004. Again everything here is fully consistent with the Barnes model. Diabetes is known to disrupt vasculature. Fully consistent with the Barnes model it is perhaps not surprising that High Glucose Impairs Voltage-Gated K+ Channel Current in Small Coronary Arteries, see Liu et al (2001).
The 384 Hz condensate/Mg2+(aq)
RF radiation in general has been reported to cause both negative and positive effects on neural function. Before the present Barnes model, it would have been virtually impossible to explain why. Above we have seen how RF could cause positive effects on cognition. On the other hand at harmonics of the 384 Hz condensate and in the presence of Hydrated Calcium ions and at coherence with hydrated calcium IPR, it would appear to cause exactly opposite and deleterious effects on human performance and cognition. This can be understood by looking at calcium metabolism in brain disease. For example, perturbed neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis is implicated in age-related cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD), see Bezprozvanny and Mattson (2008). With advancing age, neurons encounter increased oxidative stress and impaired energy metabolism, which compromise the function of proteins that control membrane excitability and subcellular Ca2+ dynamics. Toxic forms of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) can induce Ca2+ influx into neurons by inducing membrane-associated oxidative stress or by forming an oligomeric pore in the membrane, thereby rendering neurons vulnerable to excitotoxicity and apoptosis. AD-causing mutations in the β-amyloid precursor protein and presenilins can compromise these normal proteins in the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum, respectively. Thus RF perturbing and inducing Ca2+ influx could produce an Alzheimer like state and accounts for reported memory loss and perhaps dizziness and anxiety after certain RF exposures. Similalry in rats with brain injury, neuroprotection is afforded by SNX-185, an N-type voltage-gated calcium channel blocker, see Lee et al (2004). Once again everything discussed here is 100% consistent with my model.
394.3 Hz condensate/Hydronium
I next turn to the harmonic of the hydronium ion IPR in coherence with the condensate at 394.3 Hz. Effects of RF at higher harmonics of this condensate frequency are reported to alter Lymphocyte distributions. According to DeCoursey (2010) the voltage-gated proton channel bears surprising resemblance to the voltage-sensing domain (S1–S4) of other voltage-gated ion channels but is a dimer with two conduction pathways. The proton channel seems designed for efficient proton extrusion from cells. In phagocytes, it facilitates the production of reactive oxygen species by NADPH oxidase. Savina et al (2006) teaches that to initiate adaptative cytotoxic immune responses, proteolytic peptides derived from phagocytosed antigens are presented by dendritic cells (DCs) to CD8+ T lymphocytes through a process called antigen “crosspresentation.” The partial degradation of antigens mediated by lysosomal proteases in an acidic environment must be tightly controlled to prevent destruction of potential peptides for T cell recognition. They also describe a specialization of the phagocytic pathway of DCs that allows a fine control of antigen processing. The NADPH oxidase NOX2 is recruited to the DC's early phagosomes and mediates the sustained production of low levels of reactive oxygen species, causing active and maintained alkalinization of the phagosomal lumen. DCs lacking NOX2 show enhanced phagosomal acidification and increased antigen degradation, resulting in impaired crosspresentation. Therefore, NOX2 plays a critical role in conferring DCs the ability to function as specialized phagocytes adapted to process antigens rather than kill pathogens. Current theories on infections with intracellular bacteria, protozoa, and fungi support the notion that MHC class II-restricted CD4+ T cells are activated and that resistance depends exclusively on this T-cell subset. Here, Stefan Kaufmann summarizes recent evidence that in these infections MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cells are also activated, and participate in protection; they appear to lyse infected target cells and produce gamma-interferon in vitro. Thus we have link, albeit rather complex between RF exposure, the hydronium ion and the observed changes in immune cell distribution. Once again, the present Barnes model is fully vindicated.
It is further extremely interesting to note that here we also have a quantum biological mechanism for RF to generate ROS in biological tissue at minute power levels without needing to resort to complex intermediary mechanisms such as altered water structure at liquid/gas interfaces (refs).
RF applied as harmonics of the 394.3 Hz condensate in association with hydronium IPR also is reported to cause teratogenic effects in some bio-systems.
Gawad Gad (MSc Thesis 2015) discusses a recombinant protein in the Xenopus oocyte heterologous expression system, hCNT3 has been shown to have a Na+:uridine coupling ratio of 2:1, in contrast to hCNT1/2 which have Na+:uridine coupling ratios of 1:1. One of the two Na+-binding sites of hCNT3 also accepts H+. Recently, the crystal structure of a bacterial hCNT ortholog (vcCNT from Vibrio cholerae) has been reported. Based upon the crystal structure of vcCNT and previous mutagenesis studies of hCNTs, four amino acid residues (N336, V339, T370, and I371) were postulated to coordinate Na+ (and hydronium ion) binding within the primary cation-binding site of hCNT3. To test this hypothesis, electrophysiological studies were performed on oocytes producing wild-type hCNT3 or engineered forms of the transporter in which each of the four residues were individually mutated to cysteine. The results show marked changes in Na+- and H+-coupling consistent with these residues forming the primary cation-binding site of hCNT3. Mutation of the corresponding residues in hCNT1 and characterization of wild-type and mutant forms of vcCNT in oocytes provide supporting evidence for her conclusion. The argument I would advance is that if H+ levels are critical for hCNT3 then RF can disturb it and hence damage oocytes and hence cause teratogenic effects. Once again this is entirely consistent with the Barnes model involving only quantum coherence and IPR harmonics.
417 Hz condensate/ Cl-
I now turn to the anhydrous chloride IPR harmonic and condensate at approximately 417Hz. There are no fewer than four apparently different RF effects at harmonics of this frequency including ROS, memory effects, reduced mitotic index and genotoxic effects. For example, a reduction in GABAA-gated Cl– channel function during periods of oxidative stress may contribute to the development of neuronal damage, see Sah et el (2002). It is thus my contention that given a fixed level of ROS, perturbation of this channel by RF could accentuate its effects. According to Kishida and Klann (2007), knowledge of ROS function in the brain also is critical for understanding aging and neurodegenerative diseases of the brain given that several of these disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson disease, may be exacerbated by the unregulated generation of ROS. Thus it becomes possible to see how RF via GABAA-gated Cl– channel function may cause memory effects.
Wondergem et al (2001) used a non-transformed mouse liver cell line (AML12) was used to show that blocking swelling-activated membrane Cl− current inhibits hepatocyte proliferation.
Further, Cuddapah et al (2013) showed that endogenous glioma Cl− channels are regulated by TRPC1. Cl− channels could be an important downstream target of TRPC1 in many other cells types, coupling elevations in [Ca2+]i to the shape and volume changes associated with migrating cells. In chemotaxis assays epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced invasion was inhibition by TRPC1 knockdown to the same extent as pharmacological block of Cl− channels.
Considering the above, it is proposed that RF at harmonic frequencies of 417 Hz disturbs such voltage gated chloride channels associated with cellular volume changes and appropriately blocked can inhibit proliferation, hence the observed changes to mitotic index.
Lang et al (2005) show that besides regulating cytosolic Cl− activity, osmolyte flux and, thus, cell volume, most Cl− channels allow HCO3− exit and cytosolic acidification, which inhibits cell proliferation and favours apoptosis.
Examples of genotoxicity are as follows: loss of the chloride channel ClC‐7 leads to lysosomal storage disease and neurodegeneration, see Casper et al (2005). Mutations of the chloride channels are associated with a wealth of genetic diseases far too many to reference here.
The anti-cancer drug cisplatin induces apoptosis by damaging DNA. Pre-treatment of human adenocarcinoma KB cells with cisplatin for 12 h augmented the magnitude of VSOR Cl− current. Thus, it is concluded that cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in KB cells is associated with augmented activity of a DIDS-sensitive VSOR Cl− channel and that blockade of this channel is, at least in part, responsible for cisplatin resistance induced by a stilbene derivative, see Ise et al (2005). The present author has already filed for patent protection of and RF method and system in this area.
Oxidative stress, characterized by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is a major feature of several pathological states. Indeed, many cancers and neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by altered redox balance, which results from dysregulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Avairaimo et al (2010) consider the role of the intracellular chloride channel 1 (CLIC1) in microglial cells during oxidative stress. Following microglial activation, CLIC1 translocates from the cytosol to the plasma membrane where it promotes a chloride conductance. The resultant anionic current balances the excess charge extruded by the active NADPH oxidase, supporting the generation of superoxide by the enzyme. In this scenario, CLIC1 could be considered to act as both a second messenger and an executor, see Avairaimo et al (2010). One can thus explain the few observations of RF at 417 Hz harmonics as being genotoxic, and we have another mechanism by which RF can generate ROS.
Once again at the 417 Hz condensate, every single observation of the effects of RF radiation can be explained in a consistent manner by the Barnes model.
460 Hz Condensate/Proton
Finally I will discuss the condensate at 460Hz in coherence with the anhydrous proton ( hydrogen ) IPR harmonic. Initially, it would seem somewhat unclear whether Hv1 channel is relevant here or not since that fits best with the behaviour of hydrated protons, hydronium ion in its simplest sense. As I have shown earlier ions can behave as though they are anhydrous when squeezed into certain types of Nano pore channel. Sasaki et al (2006) report on ‘A Voltage Sensor-Domain Protein Is a Voltage-Gated Proton Channel’ I wonder therefore if that is the candidate here or is one and the same thing as Hv1.
Ramsey et al (2010) suggest that Hv1 most likely forms an internal water wire for selective proton transfer and that interactions between water molecules and S4 arginines may underlie coupling between voltage- and pH-gradient sensing. So in this respect I assume that Hv1 is capable of conduction of protons in any hydration state.
Hv1 is specifically expressed in highly metastatic human breast tumor tissues and cell lines and Hv1 overexpression is significantly correlated with clinicopathological parameters and contributes to breast carcinogenesis. High Hv1 expression is associated with poor progression and unfavourable clinical outcome of breast cancer, see Wang et al ( 2012). Their results demonstrated that the inhibition of Hv1 function via knockdown of Hv1 expression can effectively retard the cancer growth and suppress the cancer metastasis by the decrease of proton extrusion and the down-regulation of gelatinase activity.
It can be seen therefore that there is a mechanism for RF to interfere with cell growth and cell cycle progression on harmonic frequencies of the condensate at 460 Hz. I propose that the exact local field environment, polarisation and strength will be crucial in determining which way the protons are driven and hence whether cell growth rate will be accelerated or diminished.
This was the final IPR frequency I needed to consider with respect to small biological ions and once again the Barnes model accounts 100% for all behaviours seen.
Another test of the Barnes model: Prediction of increased cancer rates in geographic regions which have higher and lower DC magnetic fields than the average 45microtesla.
Changes in the correspondence of IPR frequencies with Geesink condensates and Schumann resonance ( SR) modes are summarised in table 4 below:
Table 4 : Shows altered correspondence of IPR resonance with Gessink condensate and presence of absence of SR mode.
Below, figure 1 is a map of the world showing geomagnetic field and world cancer incidence.
Not only did I take 45 microtesla as an average field strength but also some initial IPR data was availed from experiments doe at that field strength. It is my proposition that human life has evolved from region of the world where in general the field strength was the order of this value. At such a value most biological processes involving voltage gated ion channels appear to be protected or governed by Schumann resonance in some way. I note that as the field strength drops to 30 microtesla there are only half as many protected processes and at 55 microtesla only 1 protected process. My guess is cancer rates ought to be proportional to the number of unprotected processes. Very approximately this is seen to be the case.
A 4th order polynomial fit, figure 2, of cancer incidence across the world versus magnetic field strength is particularly instructive. In fact, it suggests that the safest field to live in is 40 microtesla +/- 8.5%.
Figure 2: World cancer incidence versus world magnetic field
This is consistent with the work of Blackman (1999) using PC12 nerve cells and hydrogen IPR who found experimentally IPR could be stimulated over abut +-10% bandwidth. The slight skew in the results is as predicted by the crude estimation above.
Third test of the Barnes model : Does it explain Tumour treating Frequencies of Zimmerman et al .
Zimmerman et al discovered a large number of so called tumour treating frequencies on the basis of patient biofeedback ( their heartrate skipped a beat or changed slightly ),said frequencies appear undisclosed. They also have a patent specification wherein most frequencies are undisclosed. They have, however, disclosed .that a small number of frequencies, e.g., 1,873.477 Hz, 2,221.323 Hz, 6,350.333 Hz, and 10,456.383 Hz, were found in the majority of patients with breast cancer, HCC, prostate cancer, and pancreatic cancer. A further test of the Barnes model is therefore to reduce the above frequencies onto the Geesink condensate scale by successive division by 2 and to see which, if any, voltage gated ion Channels are involved, see Table 5.
Table 5 : Tumour treating frequencies of Zimmerman et al reduced to Geesink condensate.
Interestingly not only will I explain Zimmermann’s frequencies but I will also explain their ‘unusual’ method of bio-feedback selection and further how it helps me narrow the families of ion channels involved. Over-expression of various voltage gated channels in cancer cells is well known. A feature of cancer cells is that the channels often expressed are those normally found in contractile muscle or neural tissue and so I propose to look at the common channels in heart muscle and sensory neurones since firstly, RF perturbation of these is the only way I see the bio-feedback signal could be generated and secondly when such a signal is generated I would then expect the same channels in the patient’s cancer cells to be also modulated. The logic in looking at sensory neurones in addition to heart muscle is just in case the effect was generated in sensory neurones adjacent to the heart or neurones elsewhere mapped to the heart.
Voltage Gated Ion Channels in Heart and Sensory Neurones
Forward genetic studies have identified several chloride (Cl-) channel genes, including CFTR, ClC-2, ClC-3, CLCA, Bestrophin, and Ano1, in the heart. Recent reverse genetic studies using gene targeting and transgenic techniques to delineate the functional role of cardiac Cl-. ClC2 is expressed in early postnatal development in rat brain but shuts down in adulthood, see Clayton et al ( 1998). ClC-3 is found in the CNS and Kidney but not really much elsewhere, see Weylandt et al (2001). Besides the heart, CLCA is found mainly in glial cells and optic nerve, see Piirsoo et al (2009).
GABA-gated chloride channels are the main inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the CNS. Conserved domains among members of previously described GABAA receptor subunits were used to design degenerate sense and antisense oligonucleotides. A PCR product from this amplification was used to isolate a full-length cDNA. The predicted protein has many of the features shared by other members of the ligand-gated ion channel family. This channel subunit has significant amino acid identity (25–40%) with members of GABAA and GABAC receptor subunits and thus may represent a new subfamily of the GABA receptor channel. is present in the electrical conduction system of the human heart. The results of Garret et al (1997) suggest that novel GABA receptors expressed outside of the CNS may regulate cardiac function.
Ringer would be overwhelmed today by the implications of his simple experiment performed over 120 years ago showing that the heart would not beat in the absence of Ca2+. Fascination with the role of Ca2+ has proliferated into all aspects of our understanding of normal cardiac function and the progression of heart disease, including induction of cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and sudden death. This review examines the role of Ca2+ and the L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in cardiac disease. All three types of calcium channel, L,T and N exist in sensory neurones, see Nowycky et al ( 1985).
The sodium cardiac NaV channel is NaV1.5. The human cardiac sodium channel hNaV1.5 is a member of the family of voltage-gated sodium channels (hNaV1 to 9). The channel consists of a primary α- and multiple secondary β-subunits. Several NaV channels are involved in neurones, especially NaV1.7, 1.8 and 1.9. However, more recently there is also a suggestion that NaV1.5 may act as a two way mechano transducer and thus be involved as a nervous system touch receptor, see Morris and Juranka ( 2007).
Heart muscle also has an inwardly rectifying potassium channel, HERG (formerly ERG1) and also expressed in the nervous system, see Papa et al (2003). Potassium leak conductances were recently revealed to exist as independent molecular entities. The channel is known as Cardiac Leak Channel Kcnk3. Kcnk channels are as fundamental to nerves as they are muscles, see Goldstein et al ( 2001). Kcnk9 ( TASK 3) is expressed in nearly all tissues.
In summery then from above I would expect to search if the same common voltage gated channels are expressed in tumour cells and would expect them to be modulated by specific frequencies accordingly. All tissues also have TRPM7 the ubiquitous non-selective cation channel. In summary I seek:
1. GABA gated chloride channels.
2. L-type voltage dependant Ca2+ channels.
3. Sodium channel Nav1.5.
5. Kcnk3,9 ( TASK 3).
2,221.323 Hz TTF
2,221.323 Hz reduces to 277.63 Hz, very close to the 278.9 Hz condensate/Ca2+ and Cl- (aq) IPR coherence. Detail of which has been discussed extensively above. Zimmermann et al report that they have no idea of the mechanism of their treatment but that the mitotic spindle is disrupted. Frequency based perturbation of both ion channels involved can bring about such effects see ‘278.9 Hz condensate/Ca2+ and Cl-‘ above. Further, Anderson et al (1991) has shown the CFTR Cl− channel contains two predicted nucleotide-binding domains (NBD1 and NBD2). ATP controls channel activity independent of the R domain and suggested that hydrolysis of ATP by NBD1 Logically then if channel activity is also influenced by frequency, ATP levels could be changed. Channels selective for potassium or chloride ions are also present in inner mitochondrial membranes. They probably play an important role in mitochondrial events such as the formation of delta pH and regulation of mitochondrial volume changes, see Kiciñska et al (2000). Deecrease in mitochondria-derived ATP during oxidative stress may cause a disassembly of mouse MII oocyte spindles, presumably due to the opening of the mitochondrial PTPs, see Zhang et al 2006. GABA-gated Cl− channels are expressed in Brain tumours.
Increases in intracellular free Ca2+ play a major role in many cellular processes. The deregulation of Ca2+ signaling is a feature of a variety of diseases, and modulators of Ca2+ signaling are used to treat conditions as diverse as hypertension to pain. The Ca2+ signal also plays a role in processes important in cancer, such as proliferation and migration. Many studies in cancer have identified alterations in the expression of proteins involved in the movement of Ca2+ across the plasma membrane and subcellular organelles. In some cases, these Ca2+ channels or pumps are potential therapeutic targets for specific cancer subtypes or correlate with prognosis, see Monteith et al (2012).
Wang et al 2000 conclude that the increase in mRNA of α1 subunit of the cardiac isoform of the L-type calcium channel may be a useful marker of colon cancer compared to other markers because the increase is large and this increase can be documented on small samples using a simple semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. They found that α1C protein is increased when colonic cells are nonconfluent or dividing which may account for the increase in cancer. This is not only entirely consistent with the Barnes model but also fully vindicates my explanation of the Zimmerman biofeedback method.
Sato et al (1994) have stated that calcium channel blockers, phenytoin and verapamil are known to have fewer side effects than conventional antineoplastic drugs, these results suggest their possible use in novel therapeutic strategies for pancreatic cancer. Thus the Zimmerman frequencies modulating calcium channel at 2,221.323 Hz in addition to chloride is a perfectly feasible way for it to operate and 100% supported by the Barnes model.
10,454.4 Hz TTF
Reduces to 326.7 condensate/ potassium channel. Potassium channels are pore-forming transmembrane proteins that regulate a multitude of biological processes by controlling potassium flow across cell membranes. Aberrant potassium channel functions contribute to diseases such as epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmia, and neuromuscular symptoms collectively known as channelopathies, see Huang and Jan (2014). Increasing evidence suggests that cancer constitutes another category of channelopathies associated with dysregulated channel expression. Indeed, potassium channel–modulating agents have demonstrated antitumor efficacy. Potassium channels regulate cancer cell behaviors such as proliferation and migration through both canonical ion permeation–dependent and noncanonical ion permeation–independent functions. For example, Mu et al ( 2003) examined a series of breast cancer samples harboring amplification of this region and determined that KCNK9 is the sole overexpressed gene within the amplification epicenter. KCNK9 encodes a potassium channel that is amplified from 3-fold to 10-fold in 10% of breast tumors and overexpressed from 5-fold to over 100-fold in 44% of breast tumors. Overexpression of KCNK9 in cell lines promotes tumor formation and confers resistance to both hypoxia and serum deprivation, suggesting that its amplification and overexpression plays a physiologically important role in human breast cancer. Kim et al (2004) also state that TASK3 (KCNK9) is found in many cancers and particularly found overexpression in colorectal cancer. In this respect the 10,454.4 Hz TTF is acting as a drug free potassium channel modulator. Such action is perfectly consistent with the Barnes model.
Reduces to 408.14 Hz close to but not on either harmonic of hydronium ion or anhydrous chloride. Within 2% of each so IPR effects remain feasible.
Hv1 expression is increased in colorectal tumour tissues and cell lines, associated with poor prognosis, see Wang et al (2013). The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 also plays important roles in proton extrusion and tumour formation by highly metastatic breast cancer cells, see Hong (2014). Thus RF modulation of Hv1 may be critical drug free method in controlling tumour progression and again entirely consistent with the Barnes model.
Peretti et al (2014) have recently disclosed chloride intracellular ionic channels (CLICs) are involved in cancer development. For instance:
•CLIC1 and CLIC4 in particular are overexpressed in cancer stem cells.
•Both proteins are largely present in the cytoplasm of tumorigenic cells.
•In cancer stem cells, they have a functional expression as membrane ionic channels.
•This peculiar localization may offer a unique target for cancer therapy.
More recently, CLC, CLIC, and CLCA intracellular chloride channels have been recognized for their contributions in modifying cell cycle, apoptosis, cell adhesion, and cell motility.
Thus RF modulation of these channels may yield a critical and highly tuneable drug free method in controlling tumour progression and again entirely consistent with the Barnes model and in all probability may be the very channels being stimulated by Zimmerman.
The final test of the model can it explain locations which have high cancer incidence on basis of RF spectrum?
IPR can be activated over a range of frequencies about +/-10% , thus I have included this in Table 6 below. This also lines up with a number of biological effects on apparently different condensates but yet which associate specifically with a certain kind of ion channel.
Table 6 : Yellow arrow = sodium = 241-256 Hz , Dark green arrow = aqueous chloride, dry calcium ( nanopore effect) =262-295 Hz, Pink arrow Potassium = 295-332 Hz, Grey arrow= Magnesium specifically TRPM7 Channel 320-374 Hz, Red arrow = Hydrated calcium 374-404 Hz, Blue arrow HV1 Proton channel centre 394 Hz, pale green arrow = Anhydrous chloride ( nanopore) 416-457 Hz.
All the observed biological effects within each frequency band can be accounted for by specific ion channels and the assumption is that each nearby mode of the condensate is capable of providing membrane vibrational energy. In addition to the predicted power banding effects it is feasible that phase effects on each nearby mode modulate the IPR kinetics as to provide channel enhancement or blocking effect.
Considering all the possible condensate frequencies, I hypothesise that the range corresponding to voltage gated chloride could be most dangerous . To re-iterate, Avairaimo et al (2010) consider the role of the intracellular chloride channel 1 (CLIC1) in microglial cells during oxidative stress. Following microglial activation, CLIC1 translocates from the cytosol to the plasma membrane where it promotes a chloride conductance. The resultant anionic current balances the excess charge extruded by the active NADPH oxidase, supporting the generation of superoxide by the enzyme. In this scenario, CLIC1 could be considered to act as both a second messenger and an executor, see Avairaimo et al (2010). One can thus explain the few observations of RF at 416-457 Hz harmonics as being genotoxic, and we have another mechanism by which RF can generate ROS.
Further TRPM7 is highly expressed in a number of human cancer tissues and cell lines. Mg2+ has an essential role in TRPM7's control of cell survival and in the regulation of cellular ROS levels, see Chen et al 2012. I wonder if RF exposure on these frequencies may be benficial?
It is most instructive to consider the frequency spectrum at a location where a triple negative breast cancer victim and young stroke victim both live. See table 7 below:
Table 7 : Frequency spectrum at house of an aggressive triple negative breast cancer case.
Notice there are 5 separate frequency sources with harmonics that could cause modulation of the TRPM7 channel and a further two 2G mobile phone frequencies affecting the intracellular chloride channel 1. I will call this I/C ratio 2/5. I = ROS INITIATION C= ROS CONTROL DISRUPTION.
In another location with animal cancer (dog) the ratio was 2/3. In a nearby location with cat and human colorectal cancer the ratio was also 2/3.
In a location with no cancer the I/C ratio was 3/2.
I propose that in the initiation phase RF produces ROS ( SUPEROXIDE) but that in normal circumstances the body could regulate this but that when TRPM7 is modulated by excessive frequency sources both additional oxidative and nitrosative stresses occur and either initiation of cancer or promotion of existing cancer follow. This could account for why certain cancer latency or reoccurrence periods appear to be reducing. Certainly ionising radiation has this effect for breast cancer, see Nguyen et al (2011).
There is enormous support for the Barnes model in the existing literature in teat numerous anti-oxidants including for example, but not limited to ; melatonin (ref) , caffeic acid phenethyl ester (ref) , vitamins E and C (ref) , garlic extract (ref) , Ginkgo biloba (ref) and Zinc (ref) are reported to produce protection from or improve the severity of RF radiation damage in tissue or cell culture.
In the Barnes quantum mechanical model pertinent to the influence of frequency on biological systems, when that ‘frequency’ is provided by an electromagnetic wave I also predict power effects directly via the AC magnetic field component of the wave.
It is possible to predict the order of magnitude of the power effects as follows. The earth’s static B field is of the order of 50 microtesla. Schumann resonance field strengths are of the order a few picotesla. I have suggested how important the synchronisation of Schumann resonance with certain key ion IPR frequencies and coherent condensate frequencies in biology handed down from its primordial origins. Persinger (2014) too has emphasised the importance of this for the human brain. While Persinger (2015) finds direct evidence of Schuman resonance coherence with measured Spectral Power Densities (SPD) within the Quantitative Electroencephalographic (QEEGs). Profiles of 41 men and women displayed repeated transient coherence with the first three modes (7 - 8 Hz, 13 - 14 Hz, and 19 - 20 Hz) of the Schumann Resonance in real time. The duration of the coherence was about 300 ms about twice per min. Topographical map clusters indicated that the domain of maximum coherence was within the right caudal hemisphere near the Parahippocampal gyrus. These clusters, associated with shifts of about 2 μV, became stable about 35 to 45 ms after the onset of the synchronizing event. During the first 10 to 20 ms, the isoelectric lines shifted from clockwise to counter-clockwise rotation. The results are consistent with the congruence of the frequency, magnetic field intensity, voltage gradient, and phase shifts that are shared by the human brain and the earth ionospheric spherical wave guide, and is also in agreement with my theories of sleep ( refs).
Indeed Persinger’s work provides incredible support for the general logic of the Barnes model.
The average RF field strength in a number of premises I have visited with cancer cases was .11v/m, see http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/CancerHouses.htm. In houses without cancer the average field strength was .019 V/m. The equivalent magnetic field strengths are 370 and 63 picotesla respectively. Taking the dozen or so strongest frequencies on the power spectrum which in this area often include 2G (900 MHz), 3G (2100 MHz), wifi, TETRA (390 MHz), UHF TV 670 MHZ, VHF pagers 153 MHz and vhf FM (90-100 MHZ) as contributing this yields an average of some 30 picotesla per frequency in cancer houses about 5 picotesla per frequency at the locations without cancer. Assuming each Schumaan resonance provides about 1 pictotesla and the first 5 are active in the human body, this also yields about 5 picotesla.
Thus it would seem, possibly this is about the threshold that needs overwhelming to produce biological effect. In line with quantum processes it is interesting to see that the field strengths associated with cancer are whole number multiples, in this case 6 times this specified magnetic field strength. Looking at other known instances of bio-sensitivity, the field some 20 cm away from an average WIFI laptop is of the order of .22 V/m, or 125 picotesla. This is an integer multiple of the above calculated ‘bio-active’ field above and several sensitive individuals including the present author have notice skin tingling and eye burning when using laptops at this range.
RF Polarisation and cancer.
Very recently indeed it has been disclosed that countries which have horizontally polarised FM radio have more cases of melanoma. In 2002, a Hallberg and Johannsen made a detailed analysis of skin melanoma in 289 Swedish municipalities showed a strong association with the number of horizontally polarized main FM transmitters covering a municipality. Basic antenna theory says that body-resonance and standing waves cannot appear above a metal spring mattress unless the electric field is horizontally polarized. To test the hypothesis that body-resonant radiation can cause increased cancer risk in other European countries, I collected and analysed reported data from 24 countries, among which six were using vertical polarization. The results showed a strong association between cancer risk and the use of horizontally polarized FM broadcasting radiation, whereas vertical polarization seemed to cause no health effects. This information should form the basis for initiating relevant corrective actions by responsible authorities. This elegantly fits the IPR hypothesis since IPR is modulated by an AC ( magnetic) field when it is parallel to the earth’s DC field, (ref), and in an horizontal EM wave the E FIELD IS HORIZONTAL AND THE H-FIELD VERTICAL ( i.e. parallel to the earth field).
Pulsed healing fields
Traditionally, pulsed electric and magnetic fields have been used for a variety of tissue healing scenarios. Getting them working has been almost a black art, where mostly ad hoc techniques have bene employed. If the pulses are of sufficient magnitude and short duration enough , electroporation occurs. However, in the majority of cases this may not be the case. A pulse simply contains a broad spectrum of frequency and therefore activates wanted and unwanted cellular processes simultaneously. The Barnes hypothesis will allow proper tuning of wound healing systems.
A new hypothesis has been formulated which brings together Bose Einstein ( Frolich ) condensate ‘Geesink’ modes and Ion Parametric Resonance. Key frequencies work in concert with Schumann resonance to normalise biological systems at an ideal DC field strength. The hypothesis enjoys strong support in a number of directions. For example, the prediction that cancer incidences would vary according to the earth’s background DC field is fulfilled. A number of healing frequencies are fully explained in terms of the particular ion channel being disturbed especially pertinent to cancer wherein cancer cells some ion channels are overexpressed. Perturbation of very specific ion channels also explains dangerous effects of RF on biology. Activation of voltage gated chloride channels is most dangerous and explains the few observations of RF at harmonics of 455-457 Hz as being genotoxic and a mechanism by which RF can generate ROS. Under normal circumstances THE BODY CAN COPE WITH THIS but I propose that if voltage gated channel TRPM7 is also modulated by excessive frequency sources at harmonics of 320-374 Hz both additional oxidative and nitrosative stresses occur and either initiation of cancer could follow or highly likely promotion of existing cancer will follow. This could account for why certain cancer latency or reoccurrence periods appear to be reducing. Certainly ionising radiation has this effect for breast cancer, see Nguyen et al (2011). Another great success of the theory is to explain why the team of Zimmerman and Pasche were able to use physiological heartbeat changes to define their so called ‘TTF’ tumour treating frequencies. The same sorts of ion channels expressed in heart muscle and nerve fibres are also expressed in many cancer cells but not so much normal non-excitable tissue. The theory also explains Hallberg’s observations of FM radio and melanoma. Finally, regarding power windowing, the limit of human sensitivity is of the order of 1picotesla, i.e. pretty much the same as Schumann resonance.
The author acknowledges his wife Gwyneth, his son Dwain and Mr Mike Jenkins for stimulating and interesting discussions on the topic.
An extensive reference list will be published in due course.